Trump Promised a Rush of Repatriated Cash, But Company Responses Are Modest

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U.S. firms have moved cautiously in repatriating stockpiled abroad income in response to final yr’s tax-law change, regardless of the Trump administration’s assertions that trillions of would return residence shortly and supercharge the home economic system.

The tax-law rewrite ended the observe of taxing U.S. firms after they repatriated international income. Corporations, which regularly complained that income have been trapped overseas, held them in international subsidiaries, piling up world earnings to keep away from extra taxes. The brand new legislation imposed a one-time tax on these previous income, eliminated federal taxes on subsequent repatriations and made future international income usually free from U.S. taxes.

“We anticipate to have in extra of $four trillion introduced again very shortly,” President Trump advised executives assembled at his golf course in Bedminster, N.J., in August. “Over $four [trillion], however near $5 trillion, shall be introduced again into our nation. That is cash that might by no means, ever be seen once more by the employees and the individuals of our nation.”

The Wall Avenue Journal reviewed securities filings from 108 publicly traded firms accounting for the overwhelming majority of an estimated $2.7 trillion in income parked overseas, and requested every firm what it was doing with the funds. Of their filings and responses, they mentioned they’ve repatriated about $143 billion up to now this yr. About two-thirds got here from simply two firms—

Cisco Techniques


Gilead Sciences

Past that, firms have introduced plans to repatriate one other $37 billion. Some with the biggest stockpiles, together with


have made normal guarantees to repatriate, with out saying when or how a lot.

Greater than a dozen giant firms, together with

Common Electrical


Boston Scientific

, have mentioned they don’t want previous international earnings within the U.S. or don’t have any speedy plans to carry money residence. Much more are ready or just received’t say. When requested, many offered no info past obscure public filings. That features




and different firms that held among the largest international money piles earlier than the tax legislation.

In all, whereas repatriations have soared previous pre-2018 ranges, unbiased analysts don’t anticipate anyplace close to the $four trillion Mr. Trump has touted.

The Journal’s $143 billion year-to-date tally compares to a Commerce Division estimate that firms introduced again $305.6 billion within the first quarter of 2018. The federal government determine contains small and carefully held corporations and surpassed the overall repatriated in all of 2016 and 2017 mixed. Greater than $35 billion of that authorities estimate displays funds routinely repatriated on a quarterly foundation earlier than the tax overhaul. An unknown quantity additionally displays new income earned since December and by no means topic to repatriation taxes, versus stockpiled previous income. Some could also be from firms which have introduced a refund however haven’t talked publicly about it.

The Commerce Division is scheduled to supply new information on second-quarter repatriations Sept. 19.

Lindsay Walters, a White Home spokeswoman, mentioned $three.9 trillion is a “believable decrease sure” for previous company income offshore and cited the first-quarter information. “There are causes to anticipate that tempo to stay robust, as giant scale company monetary choices like this aren’t made in a single day,” she mentioned. “As a businessman, the president understands that.”

As a result of repatriation is now not often a pricey occasion, firms have been telling buyers much less about their plans.

Apple stopped disclosing how a lot money it holds abroad, deeming the determine not materials. The $252 billion of international money it reported final yr was greater than 90% of the overall on its books. In January, Chief Government Tim Cook dinner mentioned Apple would carry the “overwhelming majority” to the U.S. “over time” as a part of its investments within the U.S. A spokesman wouldn’t elaborate.

A lot of the cash being repatriated is getting used to purchase again company shares. A examine by Federal Reserve economists of 15 firms with essentially the most international money discovered an uptick in buybacks and little proof of an funding growth.

Cisco, the networking-equipment big, mentioned it introduced $70 billion of international income to the U.S. this yr—roughly half the overall repatriations recognized by the Journal, and greater than the $67.5 billion in money and investments the corporate reported holding abroad final yr. Cisco this yr introduced plans to repurchase $25 billion in shares over two years. It has spent $14.5 billion on buybacks by means of July.

“All of our money mainly is repatriated on a regular basis now,” Cisco Chief Monetary Officer Kelly Kramer mentioned in February. “We’re going to be giving again to the shareholders by means of a wholesome buyback.”

Kevin Hassett, chairman of Mr. Trump’s Council of Financial Advisers, has argued that buybacks profit the economic system by getting cash to shareholders who then reinvest it in firms with home alternatives. Democrats level to buybacks as proof the tax legislation helps buyers greater than staff. Economists in each events say different options of the tax legislation are prone to have larger financial results than repatriations.

Pharmaceutical firm

Eli Lilly

& Co. returned $9 billion from abroad and mentioned it’s utilizing the cash for acquisitions, worker inventory grants, pension funding and different investments.

“We’re bringing it again to the U.S. and placing it to work,” CEO Dave Ricks mentioned in an interview.

The usually-cited figures of $2.7 trillion or $three trillion overseas overstate what might realistically return. Solely about half was in money or different liquid belongings, in line with Todd Castagno, a Morgan Stanley accounting and tax-policy analyst.

Some firms, similar to



Archer Daniels Midland

, have lengthy plowed international income into international factories, gear and different belongings that aren’t prone to transfer.

Some firms say they want funds abroad for acquisitions, debt retirement and expansions in rising markets. Furthermore, international regulators require banks and different monetary firms to keep up substantial capital reserves overseas. These firms don’t plan to carry a lot money residence.

Even with out the federal authorities taxing international earnings because it comes residence, there are nonetheless prices to transferring money throughout borders. Some U.S. states tax repatriated income, and a few nations impose taxes on dividends paid to mum or dad firms.

“It’s not fully frictionless,”

United Applied sciences

CFO Akhil Johri mentioned in an interview. Nonetheless, the brand new guidelines made it simpler to maneuver cash globally. Bringing money residence reduces the corporate’s want for U.S. borrowing, Mr. Johri mentioned.

United Applied sciences, the conglomerate that makes Otis Elevators and Pratt & Whitney jet engines, repatriated $5.1 billion this yr. The cash will assist fund its deliberate $23 billion acquisition of

Rockwell Collins

the protection contractor and aviation-equipment maker, United Applied sciences mentioned.

Technical guidelines for the one-time U.S. tax on stockpiled income—imposed whether or not or not cash is repatriated—nonetheless aren’t closing, leaving some firms cautious of creating massive adjustments too quickly. That tax, payable over eight years, is predicted to herald $339 billion, in line with a authorities estimate.

“Generally you simply can’t transfer money from Level A to Level B by simply pushing a button,” mentioned Scott Levine, a tax associate on the legislation agency Jones Day LLP who represents multinational firms. “We discover methods to get the money residence, however you’re all the time half-worried that there’s one thing you didn’t learn proper.”

Many firms don’t have pressing home money wants, as a result of they will borrow cheaply at residence because of low rates of interest or as a result of they’re specializing in increasing in international markets.

Mr. Castagno of Morgan Stanley estimates repatriations have been $150 billion to $200 billion within the second quarter. He initiatives they are going to stay above 2017 ranges, then taper off over many quarters.

Earlier than Republicans rewrote the tax code final yr, the U.S. taxed firms’ world-wide earnings at 35%, offset by tax credit for funds to international governments. Corporations might defer U.S. taxes by leaving the cash abroad.

“The [previous] tax legislation trapped their money overseas nevertheless it didn’t change what they did as a result of they may borrow domestically,” mentioned Jeff Hoopes, an accounting professor on the College of North Carolina’s Kenan-Flagler Enterprise College.

In 2004, Congress gave firms a one-time low cost on repatriating international income, providing a 5.25% tax price. Corporations introduced a refund, then resumed stockpiling international income.

Corporations lobbied to repeat that 2004 vacation, however GOP lawmakers and President Barack Obama balked. By 2014, Republicans settled on the method that turned legislation final yr: a one-time tax of 15.5% on liquid belongings held abroad and eight% on every thing else, with no tax when funds transfer from abroad subsidiaries to the U.S. Corporations now face a posh minimal tax on new international earnings, nevertheless it received’t pinch them as arduous as repatriations did underneath the previous system.

Many executives say the adjustments and accompanying tax-rate reduce made the U.S. a extra engaging place to do enterprise.


mentioned this month it will repatriate $5 billion and spend money on home operations.

GE doesn’t plan important repatriations. In an announcement, the corporate mentioned its international income have been largely reinvested in noncash belongings.

“Whereas we don’t plan on repatriating a major amount of money from offshore within the close to time period, the brand new tax legislation is useful in the long run,” the corporate mentioned. “It provides us better flexibility relating to allocating capital.”

Write to Richard Rubin at and Theo Francis at

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